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What Are Advanced Fee Schemes?

Advance fees schemes occur when victims pay an advance fee with the expectation of receiving something of greater value at a later date. Many variations of advance-fee schemes exist.  In one such scheme, a company will claim to clean up your credit report and will offer to do so in exchange for an advance fee. Another common variation of this scam is the Nigerian Advance Fee Scheme, also known internationally as a 419 fraud.  Despite repeated warnings, it continues to draw in many victims.  Don’t be one of them.

How do these scams work?

In the example of the Nigerian Advance Fee Scheme, a company or individual typically is sent an unsolicited letter or email from a sender claiming to be a senior civil servant representing the Central Bank of Nigeria or the Nigerian government. In the letter, the sender tells the recipient the sender is seeking a reputable foreign company or individual whose bank account can be used, for a substantial fee, to facilitate a large financial transaction.  The transaction will allow the deposit of “millions of dollars.”

The goal is to lure targets into thinking they are selected to participate in a lucrative arrangement. The target company or individual receives numerous documents with official-looking stamps, seals and logos, which appear to testify to the authenticity of the proposal.

Once engaged in the scheme, the target is told to:

The scam is complete when the promised money transfer doesn’t take place.  The fraudsters rely on the fact that by the time the victims realize the offer is a ruse, the victim sent thousands of dollars of their own money to the fraudster.

How can I avoid these schemes?